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- Numbered Treaty 4 (1874) and Treaty 6 (1876) and the identities of those who signed these treaties (laws to this day). Check it out!
- Treaty Elders of Saskatchewan by Harold Cardinal and Walter Hildebrandt explains the meaning of Saskatchewan’s 9 treaties from the perspective of Indigenous Elders and oral historians, emphasizing the treaty relationship and sharing the land.
- Treaties today: The Office of the Treaty Commissioner hosts a Treaty Table in Saskatchewan 2-3 times yearly. Read all about it!
- The Métis Story: Read about it here
Indian Act 1876
- Access the complete text of the Indian Act (1876) as well as documents and analysis of the Indian Act provided on the University of British Columbia’s Indigenous Foundations website.
- Access a summarized description of the Indian Act and the various significant amendments appears here
- Access a discussion of the Indian Act including comments on how it discriminates against women.
- Read the details of the changes that became law in 2017.
Forced relocation of Indigenous Peoples—examples only
- 1876 – The treaty-making process, and the creation of “reserves” under the Indian Act resulted in the forced relocation of hundreds of Indigenous communities in many parts of Canada.
- 1950’s – Inuit High Arctic Relocations: The Government of Canada caused extreme hardship and suffering when it relocated families from Inukjuak and Pond Inlet to Grise Fiord and Resolute Bay on the Arctic Circle. These people were taken from their extended family and community supports and moved to an area over 1000 kilometers further north … without adequate food supplies or even shelter. These strong people were resourceful enough to survive under extreme weather conditions with almost no food sources. Over the years, these communities created a strong Canadian presence in the High Arctic, contributing to Canadian sovereignty in the far north.
- 1960’s – Sixties Scoop – Government policies allowed Indigenous children to be taken from their parents, made permanent wards of the state, and then put up for adoption. As a result, hundreds of children were moved to other communities and other provinces. They grew up “dislocated,” without any connection or contact with their parents, siblings, extended family or language. Only a few adoptive families worked to find connections to cultural traditions.
- 2021 – Climate change is also causing the relocation of Indigenous Peoples
Charter of Rights 1982 (preceded by the Canadian Bill of Rights 1960)
- Your Guide to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
- Sections 25 and 35 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms address how rights protected under the Charter will intersect with existing rights held by Canada’s Indigenous peoples. Section 25 guarantees that no rights protected under the Charter will be used to abrogate or derogate from rights belonging to Aboriginal people (including land rights and rights under the Royal Proclamation). Section 35 provides distinct recognition and affirmation of existing Aboriginal and Treaty rights. This is an important step in amalgamating common law and Aboriginal law traditions. Source
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC)
- Honourable Murray Sinclair – What is Reconciliation (Dec 2016) 0(video 3 minutes)
- What We Have Learned: Principles of Truth and Reconciliation
- TRC’s 94 Calls to Action
- Former TRC Commissioner Dr Marie Wilson — It’s not about how we feel; it’s about what we do (5 minutes)
The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples adopted by the General Assembly in 2007. The Declaration (UNDRIP) affirms “that indigenous peoples are equal to all other peoples, while recognizing the right of all peoples to be different, to consider themselves different, and to be respected as such.” After a delay, Canada signed the declaration in 2012 and in 2015, Canada committed to implement UNDRIP.